In this developmental period, it is common to observe declines in children’s self-reported confidence, self-concept, optimism, empathy, satisfaction with life, and social responsibility
Eccles, 1999; Eccles, 2004
. However, these declines are not inevitable. During these transitional years there are many opportunities within school and community environments to promote resiliency and buffer children from risks
Oberle et al., 2014
. Research has shown that positive adult relationships at home, in school, and in community, as well as the promotion of assets, such as constructive use of after-school time, and nutrition and sleep, can prevent problems and promote resiliency during the middle years
Eccles & Roeser, 2011
. Children in their middle years can also develop social and emotional competencies and lifelong patterns of behaviour that will help them thrive.