Research on the MDI

Peer-reviewed research on the MDI and using the MDI

In addition to providing powerful data for practitioners to use to catalyze change in their schools and communities, the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI) is used by researchers in Canada and around the world to gain a deeper understanding of children in the middle years.  Below are articles printed in scholarly journals that have used MDI data to advance the understanding of children’s development during the middle years.

Development, Validity, and Reliability of the MDI

Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Hymel, S., Sweiss, L., & Hertzman, C. (2013). Development and validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI): Assessing children’s well-being and assets across multiple contexts. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 345-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0149-y

Additional Studies Supporting the Validity and Reliability of the MDI

Castelli, L., Marcionetti, J., Crescentini, A., & Sciaroni, L. (2018). Monitoring preadolescents’ well-being: Italian validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument. Child Indicators Research, 11(2), 609-628. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12187-017-9459-6

Gadermann, A., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Zumbo, B. (2010). Investigating validity evidence of the satisfaction with life scale adapted for children. Social Indicators Research, 96(2), 229-247. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-009-9474-1#page-1

Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Hymel, S., Thomson, K., & Hertzman, C. (2016). A population-based study of children’s well-being and health: The relative importance of social relationships, health-related activities, and income. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 1847-1872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9673-1

Gregory, T., Dal Grande, E., Brushe, M., Engelhardt, D., Luddy, S., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Brinkman, S. (2020). Associations between school readiness and student wellbeing: A six-year follow up study. Child Indicators Research, 14, 369-390.

Gregory, T., Engelhardt, D., Lewkowicz, A., Luddy, S., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Schonert-Reichl, K., & Brinkman, S. (2019). Validity of the Middle Years Development Instrument for population monitoring of student wellbeing in Australian school children. Child Indicators Research, 12(3), 873-899. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-018-9562-3

Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Almas, A., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Hertzman, C. (2016). Associations of teacher-rated social, emotional, and cognitive development to self-reported wellbeing, peer relations, and academic test scores in middle childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35, 76-84.

Guhn, M., Ark, T. K., Emerson, S. D., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Gadermann, A. M. (2018). The Satisfaction with Life Scale adapted for Children: Measurement invariance across gender and over time. Psychological Assessment, 30(9), 1261–1266. http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2018-26634-001?doi=1

Physical Health and Well-Being

Breheny, K., Adab, P., Passmore, S., Martin, J., Lancashire, E., Hemming, K., & Frew, E. (2018). A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the daily mile on childhood obesity and wellbeing; the Birmingham daily mile protocol. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 126-132. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-5019-8

Breheny, K., Passmore, S., Adab, P., Martin, J., Hemming, K., Lancashire, E. R., & Frew, E. (2020). Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of The Daily Mile on childhood weight outcomes and wellbeing: a cluster randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity, 44(4), 812-822. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-019-0511-0

Linking Data from the Early Development Instrument (EDI) to MDI Data

Gregory, T., Dal Grande, E., Brushe, M., Engelhardt, D., Luddy, S., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Brinkman, S. (2020). Associations between school readiness and student wellbeing: A six-year follow up study. Child Indicators Research, 14(4), 369–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-020-09760-6

Guhn, M., Gadermann, A. M., Almas, A., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Hertzman, C. (2016). Associations of teacher-rated social, emotional, and cognitive development in kindergarten to self-reported wellbeing, peer relations, and academic test scores in middle childhood. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 35(2), 76-84. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S088520061530020X

Relationship Between Well-Being and Assets

Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Gadermann, A. M., Marriott, D., Pedrini, L., Hymel, S., & Hertzman, C. (2012). Well-being in middle childhood: An assets-based population-level research-to-action project. Child Indicators Research, 5(2), 393-418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-012-9136-8

Connectedness to Peers and Adults

Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Hymel, S., Thomson, K., & Hertzman, C. (2016). A population-based study of children’s well-being and health: The relative importance of social relationships, health-related activities, and income. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 1847-1872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9673-1

Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Guhn, M., Zumbo, B. D., & Hertzman, C. (2014). The role of supportive adults in promoting positive development in middle childhood: A population-based study. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 29(4), 296-316. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0829573514540116

Well-Being

Emerson, S. D., Mâsse, L. C., Ark, T. K., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Guhn, M. (2018). A population-based analysis of life satisfaction and social support among children of diverse backgrounds in British Columbia, Canada. Quality of Life Research, 27(10), 2595-2607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1922-4

Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Gadermann, A. M., Hymel, S., & Hertzman, C. (2012). A population study of victimization, relationships, and well-being in middle childhood. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(5), 1529–1541. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-012-9393-8#page-1

Magee, C., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Oberle, E. (2019). Mental well-being among children in foster care: The role of supportive adults. Children & Youth Services Review, 102, 128-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.05.005

Oberle, E., Guhn, M., Gadermann, A. M., Thomson, K., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2018). Positive mental health and supportive school environments: A population-level longitudinal study of dispositional optimism and school relationships in early adolescence. Social Science and Medicine, 214, 154-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.041

After-School Time

Oberle, E., Ji, X. R., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Gadermann, A. M. (2019). Benefits of extracurricular participation in early adolescence: Associations with peer belonging and mental health. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(11), 2255-2270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01110-2

Oberle, E., Ji, X. R., Kerai, S., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Gadermann, A. M. (2020). Screen time and extracurricular activities as risk and protective factors for mental health in adolescence: A population-level study. Preventive Medicine, 141, 106291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2020.106291

Oberle, E., Ji, X. R., Magee, C., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Gadermann, A. M. (2019). Extracurricular activity profiles and wellbeing in middle childhood: A population-level study. PLoS ONE, 14(7), e0218488-e0218488. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0218488

Relation Between Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and the MDI

Thomson, K. C., Oberle, E., Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., Rowcliffe, P., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2018). Measuring social-emotional development in middle childhood: The Middle Years Development Instrument. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 55, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2017.03.005

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