References

Why are the Middle Years important

Del Giudice, M. (2014). Middle childhood: An evolutionary-developmental synthesis. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 193-200. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47143-3_5

Del Giudice, M. (2018). Middle childhood: An evolutionary-developmental synthesis. In N. Halfon, C. B. Forrest, R. M. Lerner, & E. M. Faustman (Eds.), Handbook of life course health development (pp. 95-107). Springer. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319471419

Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.90

Eccles, J. S. (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10646256

Eccles, J. S. (2004). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed., pp. 125–153). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2004-12826-005

Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2009). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 404-434).  Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy001013

Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). Schools as developmental contexts during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 225-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00725.x

Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2016). School and community influences on human development. In M. H. Boorstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An advanced textbook (7th ed., pp. 645–728). Erlbaum.

Immordino-Yang, M. H., Darling-Hammond, L., & Krone, C. R. (2019). Nurturing nature: How brain development is inherently social and emotional, and what this means for education. Educational Psychologist, 54(3), 185-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2019.1633924

Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Guhn, M., Zumbo, B. D., & Hertzman, C. (2014). The role of supportive adults in promoting positive development in middle childhood: A population-based study. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 29(4), 296-316. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0829573514540116

Roeser, R. W. & Eccles, J. S., (2014). Schooling and the mental health of children and adolescents in the United States. In M. Lewis & K. D. Rudolph (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (3rd Edition, pp. 163-184). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9608-3_9

Wentzel, K. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 411-419. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.3.411

Wentzel, K. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202-209. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.90.2.202

Wentzel, K. R., Battle, A., Russell, S. L., & Looney, L. B. (2010). Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(3), 193-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.03.002

What is the MDI?

Schonert-Reichl, K. A, Guhn, M., Gadermann, A., Hymel, S., Sweiss, L., & Hertzman, C. (2013). Development and validation of the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI): Assessing children’s well-being and assets across multiple contexts. Social Indicators Research, 114(2), 345-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0149-y

Thomson, K. C., Oberle, E., Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., Rowcliffe, P., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2018). Measuring social-emotional development in middle childhood: The Middle Years Development Instrument. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 55, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2017.03.005

Physical Health and Well-Being

Adolphus, K., Lawton, C. L., Champ, C. L., & Dye, L. (2016). The effects of breakfast and breakfast composition on cognition in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Advances in Nutrition, 7(3), 590S-612S. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.010256

Buttazzoni, A. N., Van Kesteren, E. S., Shah, T. I., & Gilliland, J. A. (2018). Active school travel intervention methodologies in North America: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 55, (1), 115 –124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.007

Buxton, O. M., Chang, A.-M., Spilsbury, J. C., Bos, T., Emsellem, H., & Knutson, K. L. (2015). Sleep in the modern family: Protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep. Sleep Health, 1(1), 15-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.002

Chaput, J.-P., & Janssen, I. (2016). Sleep duration estimates of Canadian children and adolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(5), 541-548. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12410

Faulkner, G. E. J., Buliung, R. N., Flora, P. K., & Fusco, C. (2009). Active school transport, physical activity levels and body weight of children and youth: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 48(1), 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.10.017

Forrest, C. B., Bevans, K. B., Riley, A. W., Crespo, R., & Louis, T. A. (2013). Health and school outcomes during children’s transition into adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(2), 186-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.019

Fulton, J. E., Shisler, J. L., Yore, M. M., & Caspersen, C. J. (2005). Active transportation to school: Findings from a national survey. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 76(3), 352-357. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2005.10599306

Hertzman, C., & Boyce. T. (2010). How experience gets under the skin to create gradients in developmental health. Annual Review of Public Health31(1), 329-347. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.012809.103538 

Jones, B. L. (2018). Making time for family meals: Parental influences, home eating environments, barriers and protective factors. Physiology & Behavior, 193  (Part B), 248-251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.03.035

Langford, R., Bonell, C. P., Jones, H. E., Pouliou, T., Murphy, S. M., Waters, E., Komro, K. A., Gibbs, L. F., Magnus, D., &  Campbell, R. (2014). The WHO Health Promoting School framework for improving the health and well‐being of students and their academic achievement. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008958.pub2

Matricciani, L., Paquet, C., Galland, B., Short, M., & Olds, T. (2019). Children’s sleep and health: A meta-review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 46, 136-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2019.04.011

McDonald, N. C. (2007). Active transportation to school: Trends among U.S. schoolchildren, 1969-2001. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(6), 509-516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.02.022

Middleton, G., Golley, R., Patterson, K., Le Moal, F., & Coveney, J. (2020). What can families gain from the family meal? A mixed-papers systematic review. Appetite, 153, 104725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2020.104725

Moeijes, J., van Busschbach, J. T., Bosscher, R. J., & Twisk, J. W. R. (2018). Sports participation and psychosocial health: A longitudinal observational study in children. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 702. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5624-1

 

Pabayo, R., Maximova, K., Spence, J. C., Ploeg, K. V., Wu, B., & Veugelers, P. J. (2012). The importance of active transportation to and from school for daily physical activity among children. Preventive Medicine, 55(3), 196-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.06.008

ParticipACTION. (2020). The role of the family in the physical activity, sedentary and sleep behaviours of children and youth. The 2020 ParticipACTION Report card on physical activity for children and youth. ParticipACTION. https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/resources/children-and-youth-report-card

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2006). The human face of mental health and mental illness in Canada. Government of Canada. https://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/human-humain06/pdf/human_face_e.pdf

Reichelt, A. C. (2016). Adolescent maturational transitions in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine signaling as a risk factor for the development of obesity and high fat/high sugar diet induced cognitive deficits. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10(189), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00189

Rickwood, D., Deane, F. P., Wilson, C. J., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Young people’s help-seeking for mental health problems. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health, 4(3), 218-251. https://doi.org/10.5172/jamh.4.3.218

Voss, C. (2018). 1 – Public health benefits of active transportation. In R. Larouche (Ed.), Children’s active transportation (pp. 1-20). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811931-0.00001-6

Waddell, C., McEwan, K., Shepherd, C. A., Offord, D. R., & Hua, J. M. (2005). A public health strategy to improve the mental health of Canadian children. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(4), 226-233. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F070674370505000406

Xu, Z., Huang, F., Kösters, M., Staiger, T., Becker, T., Thornicroft, G., & Rüsch, N. (2018). Effectiveness of interventions to promote help-seeking for mental health problems: systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 48(16), 2658-2667. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291718001265

Zipp, A., & Eissing, G. (2019). Studies on the influence of breakfast on the mental performance of school children and adolescents. Journal of Public Health, 27(1), 103-110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-018-0926-4

Social and Emotional Development

Avşar, F., & Ayaz Alkaya, S. (2017). The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 36, 186-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2017.06.020

Bergin, C. (2014). Educating students to be prosocial at school. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G. Carlo (Eds.) Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 279-301). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964772.003.0014

Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Bertoli, M. C., & Salovey, P. (2016). Emotional intelligence. In L. F. Barrett, M. Lewis, & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (4th ed., pp. 513–531). Guilford Press. https://www.guilford.com/books/Handbook-of-Emotions/Barrett-Lewis-Haviland-Jones/9781462536368/contents

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2014). Dispositional optimism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(6), 293-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2014.02.003

Casey, B. J., Heller, A. S., Gee, D. G., & Cohen, A. O. (2019). Development of the emotional brain. Neuroscience Letters, 693, 29-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2017.11.055

Chan, W. Y., Ou, S.-R., & Reynolds, A. J. (2014). Adolescent civic engagement and adult outcomes: An examination among urban racial minorities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(11), 1829-1843. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0136-5

Claro, S., & Loeb, S. (2019). Self-management skills and student achievement gains: Evidence from California’s CORE districts. Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE). https://edpolicyinca.org/sites/default/files/WP_Claro-Loeb_Sept19.pdf

Divecha, D., & Brackett, M. (2020). Rethinking school-based bullying prevention through the lens of social and emotional learning: A bioecological perspective. International Journal of Bullying Prevention, 2(2), 93-113. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42380-019-00019-5

Domitrovich, C. E., Durlak, J. A., Staley, K. C., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Social-emotional competence: an essential factor for promoting positive adjustment and reducing risk in school children. Child Development, 88(2), 408-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12739

Duckworth, A. L., & Carlson, S. M. (2013). Self-regulation and school success. In B. W. Sokol, F. M. E. Grouzet, & U. Müller (Eds.), Self-regulation and autonomy: Social and developmental dimensions of human conduct (pp. 189-252). Cambridge University Press. https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/selfregulation-and-autonomy/selfregulation-and-autonomy-at-school/F9DEFD8738857BE37E21E356D4DEDEF9

Dweck, C. S. (2002). The development of ability conceptions. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 57-88). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012750053-9/50005-X

Eccles, J. S. (2004). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed., pp. 125–153). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2004-12826-005

Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2009). Schools, academic motivation, and stage-environment fit. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 404-434). Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy001013

Erath, S. A., Flanagan, K. S., & Bierman, K. L. (2007). Social anxiety and peer relations in early adolescence: Behavioral and cognitive factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 405-416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9099-2

Eskreis-Winkler, L., Duckworth, A., Shulman, E., & Beal, S. (2014). The grit effect: Predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. Article 36. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00036

Fuligni, A. J., & Eccles, J. S. (1993). Perceived parent-child relationships and early adolescents’ orientation toward peers. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 622-632. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.29.4.622

Gadermann , A. M., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Hymel, S., Thomson, K., & Hertzman, C. (2016). A population-based study of children’s well-being and health: the relative importance of social relationships, health-related activities, and income. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 1847-1872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9673-1

Geboers, E., Geijsel, F., Admiraal, W., & Dam, G. T. (2013). Review of the effects of citizenship education. Educational Research Review, 9, 158-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2012.02.001

Greenberg, M., Domitrovich, C., Weissberg, R., & Durlak, J. (2017). Social and emotional learning as a public health approach to education. Future of Children, 27(1), 13-32. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44219019

Harter, S. (2015). Self-development in childhood and adolescence. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 492-497). Elsevier.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.23019-5

Hébert, Y. M., & Wilkinson, L. (2002). The citizenship debates: Conceptual, policy, experiential, and educational issues. In Y. Hébert (Ed.), Citizenship in transformation in Canada (pp. 1-36). University of Toronto Press. https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442672963-001

Immordino-Yang, M. H., Darling-Hammond, L., & Krone, C. R. (2019). Nurturing nature: How brain development is inherently social and emotional, and what this means for education. Educational Psychologist, 54(3), 185-204. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2019.1633924

Kim, J., & Morgül, K. (2017). Long-term consequences of youth volunteering: Voluntary versus involuntary service. Social Science Research, 67, 160-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.05.002

McClelland, M. M., Geldhof, G. J., Cameron, C. E., & Wanless, S. B. (2015). Development and self-regulation. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science. Volume 1. Theory and method (pp. 1-43). John Wiley & Sons Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy114

Moilanen, K. L. (2007). The Adolescent Self-Regulatory Inventory: The development and validation of a questionnaire of short-term and long-term self-regulation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(6), 835-848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9107-9

Moilanen, K. L., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Blaacker, D. R. (2018). Dimensions of short-term and long-term self-regulation in adolescence: Associations with maternal and paternal parenting and parent-child relationship quality. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(7), 1409–1426. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10964-018-0825-6

Orth, U., Erol, R. Y., & Luciano, E. C. (2018). Development of self-esteem from age 4 to 94 years: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 144(10), 1045-1080. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000161

Peneva, I., & Mavrodiev, S. (2013). A historical approach to assertiveness. Psychological Thought, 6(1), 3-26. https://doi.org/10.5964/psyct.v6i1.14

Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583-630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9110-9

Rivers, S. E., & Brackett, M. A. (2010). Achieving standards in the English language arts (and more) using the RULER approach to social and emotional learning. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 27(1-2), 75-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573569.2011.532715

Schonert-Reichl, K. (2011). Promoting empathy in school-aged children: Current approaches and implications for practice. In K. Nader (Ed.), School rampage shootings and other youth disturbances: Early preventive interventions (pp. 159-203). Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/School-Rampage-Shootings-and-Other-Youth-Disturbances-Early-Preventative/Nader/p/book/9780415877480

Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2011). Middle childhood inside and out: The psychological and social worlds of Canadian children ages 9-12, Full Report. Report prepared for the United Way of the Lower Mainland, University of British Columbia, Canada. http://earlylearning.ubc.ca/documents/247/

Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2019). Advancements in the landscape of social and emotional learning and emerging topics on the horizon. Educational Psychologist, 54(3), 222-232. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2019.1633925

Schreier, H. M. C., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Chen, E. (2013). Effect of volunteering on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA pediatrics, 167(4), 327-332. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.1100

Sigler, K., Burnett, A., & Child, J. T. (2008). A regional analysis of assertiveness. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 37(2), 89-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475750802533364

Tang, X., Wang, M.-T., Guo, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2019). Building grit: The longitudinal pathways between mindset, commitment, grit, and academic outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(5), 850-863. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-00998-0

Thomson, K. C., Oberle, E., Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., Rowcliffe, P., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2018). Measuring social-emotional development in middle childhood: The Middle Years Development Instrument. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 55, 107-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2017.03.005

Thomson, K. C., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Oberle, E. (2014). Optimism in early adolescence: relations to individual characteristics and ecological assets in families, schools, and neighborhoods. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-014-9539-y

Weissberg, R. P., Durlak, J. A., Domitrovich, C. E., & Durlak, J. A. (2015). Social and emotional learning: Past, present, and future. In J. A. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice (pp. 3-19). Guilford.

Wentzel, K. R. (2014). Prosocial behavior and peer relations in adolescence. In L. M. Padilla-Walker & G.  Carlo (Eds.) Prosocial development: A multidimensional approach (pp. 178-200). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199964772.003.0009

Yoder, N. (2014). Teaching the whole child: Instructional practices that support social-emotional learning in three teacher evaluation frameworks. Research-to-practice brief. Center on Great Teachers and Leaders at American Institutes of Research. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED581718.pdf

Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Penza-Clyve, S. (2001). Development and initial validation of the Children’s Sadness Management Scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(3), 187-205. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010623226626

School Experiences

Allen, K., Kern, M. L., Vella-Brodrick, D., Hattie, J., & Waters, L. (2018). What schools need to know about fostering school belonging: A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 30(1), 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-016-9389-8

Battistich, V., Solomon, D., Watson, S., & Schaps, E. (1997). Caring school communities. Educational Psychologist, 32, 137–151.

Darling-Hammond, L., & Cook-Harvey, C. M. (2018). Educating the whole child: Improving school climate to support student success. Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/product/educating-whole-child

Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Gadermann, A. M., Hymel, S., & Hertzman, C. (2012). A population study of victimization, relationships, and well-being in middle childhood. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14, 1529–1541. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10902-012-9393-8#page-1

McDougall, P., & Vaillancourt, T. (2015). Long-term adult outcomes of peer victimization in childhood and adolescence: Pathways to adjustment and maladjustment. American Psychologist, 70(4), 300-310. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0039174

National School Climate Council. (2007). The School Climate Challenge: Narrowing the gap between school climate research and school climate policy, practice guidelines and teacher education policy. https://www.schoolclimate.org/themes/schoolclimate/assets/pdf/policy/school-climate-challenge-web.pdf

Oberle, E., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2017). Social and emotional learning: Recent research and practical strategies for promoting children’s social and emotional competence in schools. In J. Matson (Ed.), Handbook of social behavior and skills in children. Autism and child psychopathology series (pp. 175-197). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64592-6_11

Trach, J., Hymel, S., Waterhouse, T., & Neale, K. (2010). Bystander responses to school bullying: A cross sectional investigation of grade and sex differences. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25(1), 114–130. https://doi.org/10.1177/0829573509357553

Trautwein, U., & Möller, J. (2016). Self-concept: Determinants and consequences of academic self-concept in school contexts. In A. A. Lipnevich, F. Preckel, & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), Psychosocial skills and school systems in the 21st century: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 187-214). Springer International. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28606-8_8

Wang, M.-T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 315-352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9319-1

Connectedness

Bosmans, G., & Kerns, K. A. (2015). Attachment in middle childhood: Progress and prospects. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development. 2015(148), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/cad.20100

Collins, W. A., & Madsen, S. D. (2019). Parenting during middle childhood. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Children and parenting (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 81-110). Taylor and Francis Group. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429440847/chapters/10.4324/9780429440847-3

Durlak, J., & Weissberg, R. (2007). The impact of after-school programs that promote personal and social skills. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. https://www.casel.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/the-impact-of-after-school-programs-that-promote-personal-and-social-skills.pdf

Eccles, J. S. (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. Future of Children, 9(2), 30-44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10646256

Emerson, S. D., Mâsse, L. C., Ark, T. K., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Guhn, M. (2018). A population-based analysis of life satisfaction and social support among children of diverse backgrounds in British Columbia, Canada. Quality of Life Research, 27(10), 2595-2607. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1922-4

First Nations Information Governance Centre (2016). Now is the time: Our data, our stories, our future. The national report of the First Nations regional early childhood, education, and employment survey. Ottawa, ON. Available from http://fnigc.ca/sites/default/files/docs/fnigc_fnreees_national_report_2016_en_final_01312017.pdf

Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Hymel, S., Thomson, K., & Hertzman, C. (2016). A population-based study of children’s well-being and health: the relative importance of social relationships, health-related activities, and income. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(5), 1847-1872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-015-9673-1

García-Moya, I., Brooks, F., Morgan, A., & Moreno, C. (2015). Subjective well-being in adolescence and teacher connectedness: A health asset analysis. Health Education Journal, 74(6), 641-654. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0017896914555039

Masten, A. S. (2018). Resilience theory and research on children and families: past, present, and promise. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(1), 12-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12255

Masten, A. S., & Barnes, A. J. (2018). Resilience in children: Developmental perspectives. Children, 5(7), 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/children5070098

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After School Time

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